Usually various sized stones, crushed rock, gravel, etc. that make up approximately 92-96% of the asphalt mixture. (Asphalt Cement makes up the other 4-8 %).
Articulated rock truck
A four-wheel drive dump truck with heavy duty tapered box and pivoting connection between cab and box.
The common name for "Bituminous Asphalt Concrete". It is also known as "flexible pavement". It is a mixture of aggregates and hot asphalt cement that when placed, compacted and subsequently cooled, becomes the familiar asphalt.
Asphalt mix where the largest stone used is no larger than 3/4 of an inch ( typically #57 gradation). Base mixes are usually laid over a stone base at a minimum depth of 2 inches compacted.
The asphalt layer between the base layer of rock or other aggregate and the driving surface layer. The asphalt binder layer is usually made up of coarser materials and is usually thicker than the surface layer. The binder layer can be used as either a first layer or a driving surface, but its use is actually fairly limited. The vast majority of jobs call for a stone base layer, an asphalt base layer, then a surface layer.
A petroleum byproduct used to "glue" the pavement together. By volume, this material makes up about 4-8% of the pavement mixture. (Aggregates make up the other 92-96%).
See definition of "Asphalt" above.
Placing dirt behind an existing wall or structure.
A rubber tired vehicle with loader bucket in front and small excavator bucket at back.
Base failures occur when the layer beneath the binder layer and driving surface can no longer adequately support the weight of the structure or the traffic. Base failures can occur for a number of reasons, including: ground water, excessive load counts (too much weight), and inadequate design. The failure can be corrected by excavating the failed material and replacing it with bridging stone material.
Fine gravel or crushed rock placed around culverts to evenly distribute load.
An elevation reference point
Trade name for a four wheeled skid steer loader.
Culvert of rectangular cross section, commonly of precast concrete.
Drilling into the ground to extract samples of earth for testing.
A piece of heavy equipment with front mounted blade, used for clearing lots and property. It is used to push over trees and grade construction sites.
Computer Aided Design and Drafting.
Construction of forms and filling with concrete at final location.
AKA Portland Cement - a dry powder consisting of burned limestone, gypsum and other chemicals - used in the manufacture of concrete, mortar, grout etc.
Clearing & Grubbing
The removing of trees, shrubs, and debris prior to beginning construction.
Corrugated metal pipe, generally galvanised and/or tarred for corrosion resistance
Compressing a given volume of material into a lesser volume. A compacted subgrade and base is essential.
The common name for "Portland Cement Concrete Pavement". A hard, compact building material formed when a mixture of cement, sand, gravel, and water dries.
An imaginary line linking points of equal elevation.
Cut & Fill
How many yards of dirt will be cut or excavated or how many yards of fill dirt will be brought in or imported for a particular project
A separation of the asphalt layer due to excessive loads (weights), heat, or age.
Deviation of a pavement from profile under weight loads.
Density (thickness or compactness)
Technically, density refers to the weight of a material at a specific volume (unit weight). A specific density of asphalt is achieved my mechanically compacting (rolling) the hot material after it has been placed by the paving equipment. To most consumers of asphalt, it means the compaction of the material versus a theoretical value that is usually derived in a laboratory.
a test done to check the level of soil compaction achieved during compaction. This is done with a density testing instrument. This instrument will indicate the rate of compaction that has been achieved. From this reading, it will be known if the moisture content is correct and if there is a further need for compaction.
Depth of Cover
Depth of fill placed atop a culvert.
Drilling sideways under structures/roadways/streams etc to place pipes, utility lines without excavation. Generally limited to less than 30cm diameter.
A system of drains and pipes for carrying away surface water. An asphalt surface is sloped to maximize the removal of surface water for vehicular safety.
To remove sediments and vegetation from ditches/ canals etc in order to improve conveyance.
Generally tracked vehicle with rotating body and front mounted digging arm.
Slope. The degree to which a paved surface is angled to aid in the drainage of water.
Dirt that is brought in or imported to be used as fill in a foundation or used to back fill utility ditches or undercut areas
The region flanking a river channel that is subject to periodic inundation.
Wood or metal structure that concrete is poured into.
Geotechnical Investigation (or Survey)–
The process of evaluating the earth under the project site. This is done to determine the stability of the site and what, if anything, needs to be done to reinforce the site prior to construction.
Heavy weight fabric of generally synthetic material used to stabilize aggregates, soil etc. May be of woven or felted composition.
Global Positioning System – a series of satellites and ground based hardware that allow precision location anywhere on the surface of the globe.
Slope. The degree to which a paved surface is angled to aid in the drainage of water. The act of leveling or sloping the subgrade or base layer before paving.
Rubber tired vehicle with blade mounted between front and rear axles.
A wall built at top and sides of a culvert end to secure adjacent soil.
An arrangement of wing walls and apron that smooths the hydraulic transition from open channel to culvert flow and increases maximum capacity. It may also be the mounting point for a trash rack.
The bottom of the culvert.
Abbreviation - iron pin (normally used to mark corners of property lots)
An asphalt joint is the area where two different "pulls" of asphalt meet. This area is usually highly visible after the paving operation and is sometimes referred to as a "seam".
The addition of lightweight aggregates such as pumice.
A sedimentary rock often used as a building material, and for the base layer in an asphalt or PCCP paving system, and the major stone component for asphalt materials produced in our region.
Wheeled or tracked vehicle with wide front mounted bucket to scrape and load trucks.
Truck tractor and low semi-trailer used to transport large excavators, dozers etc.
Measuring the density of a previously placed material achieved by using a special instrument designed to measure the penetration of radiation into that material.
An arrangement of apron, wing walls and sometimes energy absorption structure at the end of a culvert.
The practice of placing new asphalt over an existing asphalt or concrete surface. Also called resurfacing.
Portland Cement Concrete Pavement (PCCP)
A hard, compact building material formed when a mixture of cement, sand, gravel, and water dries. Commonly known as concrete.
A method to determine the maximum density that can be achieved through wetting and packing for a given aggregate.
Abbreviation – offset (generally used when a survey stake cannot be placed on the exact point of interest).
RAP (Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement)
Asphalt millings or other asphalt pavements that have been excavated for re-use. The RAP is oftern used as a component of new hot-mixed asphalt.
Cracks in the asphalt overlay that mirror the cracks in the original asphalt surface below. The photo at right illustrates a crack in the asphalt overlay "mirroring" (reflecting) the control joint of the old concrete street under the asphalt.
A mixture of gravel, sand and fines that compacts well.
Abbreviation – right of way
Manholes that are part of a sewage system. There are many types and sizes of manholes. Most manholes are cylindrical in shape and made of concrete.
A heavy piece of equipment used in dirt compaction. Because of the angle of the projections on the roller, the Sheep’s Foot is able to compact at a high value per square inch. Most are also able to vibrate while it is compacting. This increases it ability to compact.
The degree to which a paved surface is angled to aid in the drainage of water.
The "sloppiness" of wet concrete, generally more slump equals less strength.
The layer in the pavement system below the asphalt binder and driving surface. The base usually consists of crushed stones of varying sizes and gradations.
Conveyor belt equipped dump truck than can precision place or "throw" gravel.
The soil prepared to support an asphalt structure or pavement system. It is the foundation for the base and the pavement structure.
Subgrade failures occur when the prepared soil beneath the asphalt structure can no longer adequately support the weight of the structure or the traffic. Subgrade failures can occur for a number of reasons, including: ground water, excessive load counts (too much weight), and inadequate design. The failure can be corrected by excavating the soft material from the affected area and replacing it with compacted soil or bridging stone material.
Is short for "Superior Performing Asphalt Pavement". It is an asphalt design philosophy that uniquely designs roads, parking lots and other asphalt structures according to the environment. Variables such as weather, the amount of traffic, the type of traffic, etc. are taken into account.
Asphalt mix where the largest stone used is no larger than 3/8 of an inch ( typically #8 gradation). Surface mixes are usually laid at a minimum depth of 1" compacted.
Three axle (rear) dump truck.
Native or manufactured soil with 15-40% organic content. It is normally used to provide a good growing base for vegetation. This soil is usually dark in color and a sandy loam consistency.
A break in the asphalt pavement that is at a ninety degree angle to the direction of the roadway or the direction in which the asphalt was laid.
A joint in the asphalt pavement that is at a ninety degree angle to the direction of the roadway or the direction in which the asphalt was laid.
Is a layer of asphalt applied as leveling prior to the application of the final driving surface of asphalt. The wedging layer is intended to even out any imperfections in the existing pavement prior to applying the final layer.
A flaring vertical wall on either side of a culvert.